Smart sensors for future fast charging – “SPARTACUS” battery research project has mastered the first milestones


With the first work package, the specification protocols were defined on different levels, starting with the sensor, data pre-processing, integration, modules, battery management systems, validation and the LCA methodology framework. The work package has already been completed and forms the basis for the collaborative development within the SPARTACUS project.

Sensor development

The aim of the sensor development work package is to develop new integrated multi-sensor technologies for monitoring the operating state of battery cells in terms of electrical, mechanical and thermal parameters. If possible, the sensors should provide information with local resolution.

The sensor technologies include     

  • Various ultrasound procedures
  • Flexible capacitive stress, strain and pressure sensor arrays
  • Temperature sensors
  • Impedance spectroscopic measurements

Assembly and interconnection technology

The integration and assembly technology work package is closely linked to the sensor development work package. In addition to primary integration and assembly, signal evaluation and data acquisition as well as data preprocessing are also challenging tasks. For the assembly, different sensor levels must be combined into one system without loss of sensitivity for the different sensors.


The modelling work package aims at obtaining a complete monitoring and control of the battery system to increase its quality, reliability and lifetime (QRL) and to ensure its operation within a predefined safe operating area (SoA). In this context, the states of the batteries should be systematically extracted and validated. The sensor signals should be correlated with the different fault mechanisms. Methods based on artificial intelligence will also be used to evaluate the large amounts of sensor data. The models provide the basis for controlling the cell management systems.

Cell/battery management system development

In order to exploit the advantages of intelligent sensor integration, cell and battery management systems are being adapted. The aim of the CMS/BMS work package is to develop a battery management system (BMS) that is able to read out the various sensor measurements, process the data and optimally control the cell during the charge/discharge cycles on the basis of the model calculations.

The CMS/BMS development includes

  • Hardware design and production
  • Software architecture, programming and implementation
  • Realization of the CMS/BMS power line communication
  • System level verification: a series of a few cells equipped with the CMS to achieve a 24 V system.

Ecological and economic assessment

To evaluate the environmental and economic performance of SPARTACUS smart batteries, the project includes a life cycle analysis (LCA). The increased quality, reliability and lifetime of the batteries as well as the second life and LCOES – that means levelized costs of energy storage – of extended life batteries will be assessed in accordance with the European Circular Economy Strategy and the Battery Directive. .

Validation / Demonstration

In this work package, a complex use case will be designed and set up to test all new functionalities of the SPARTACUS CMS/BMS, the new sensors and the modeling of batteries/cells in a virtual platform. This includes e.g. aging experiments under conventional CMS/BMS to compare and validate the aging behavior.

Source: Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC

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